What Are the Various Types of Congenital Anomalies?


A congenital anomaly or birth defect is a medical condition one has from birth. Such medical conditions can be mild or serious. They can affect the senses, the functioning of the body, development and one or more body parts/organs. Some of these conditions are hereditary while others are associated with a pregnant woman’s health or certain environmental factors. The chances of some of these anomalies can be reduced. For that, it’s good to consult the best paediatrician in Hyderabad.  

Here’s everything you need to know about the different types of congenital anomalies. 

Structural Anomalies

Heart defects: Smoking or having diabetes during pregnancy can increase the chances of heart defects in the baby. These happen when a part of the heart doesn’t form well in the uterus. This impacts its ability for blood circulation around the body. 

Limb reduction: It happens when a part of a limb doesn’t form properly in the womb. Examples are a too-short arm, clubfoot and a missing finger. In severe cases, movements are restricted or impossible. The best paediatrician in Hyderabad can say whether prosthetics, splints or simply physical therapy is needed. 

Cleft lip or palate: This occurs when the tissues forming the lip or the mouth’s roof don’t join properly. This can impact eating and speech. Usually, this condition needs to be treated surgically. For that, speak to a top paediatric surgeon in your city. 

Neural tube defects: These include anencephaly (parts of the skull and brain don’t form), encephalocele (the brain grows out through an opening in the skull) and spina bifida (the spine can’t form and close well). 

Gut and stomach anomalies: In these cases, the stomach muscles don’t form well. So, a hole is left near the belly button and the intestines project out of the body. 

Developmental Anomalies 

Down syndrome: An individual with this condition has an extra chromosome since birth. This affects physical and brain development. 

Visual impairments: These happen when the eyes and the brain do not coordinate properly or the eye shape is irregular. 

Hearing defects: These happen when one or both ears malfunction and cause deafness or reduced ability to hear. Sometimes, these are genetic. Before your infant is 1 month old, you must take him/her to the best paediatrician in Hyderabad for a hearing screening. 

Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: These affect development, growth and learning in babies and can happen if the mother consumes alcohol during pregnancy. 

Cerebral palsy: It is a very common childhood motor defect which affects the postures, movements and balance of the body. The condition happens when the developing brain in an infant is damaged.  

Muscular dystrophy: It affects the muscles and weakens them gradually. Based on the affected group of muscles, there can be various kinds of muscular dystrophy. 

Genetic disorders: They can sometimes affect development. One such disorder is fragile X syndrome which affects behaviour, learning and brain development.

Specific language disorder: This communication impairment can affect one’s ability to speak, read and write. 


If your little one has any of the above anomalies, make sure to take him/her to the best paediatrician in Hyderabad without delay for immediate treatment.